"Digestive endoscopic surgery uses scopes going through small incisions or natural body openings in order to diagnose and treat disease. Endoscopy can be both therapeutic and diagnostic."
    Digestive Endoscopy

Digestive endoscopic surgery uses scopes going through small incisions or natural body openings in order to diagnose and treat disease. Endoscopy can be both therapeutic and diagnostic. In other words endoscopy permits your surgeon to distinguish and decide how to best treat conditions that show up in the upper or lower some parts your digestive system. Endoscopy is the best method for right on time discovery for a few types of cancer.

This examination is performed using an endoscope-a flexible fiber optic tube with a tiny TV camera at the end. The camera is connected to either an eyepiece for direct viewing or a video screen that displays the images on a color TV. The endoscope not only allows diagnosis of diseases associated with your digestive system but treatment as well.

Digestive endoscopy can be done most commonly by either EGD method or by lower GI method.

An esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) is a technique that permits your doctor to inspect the lining of the upper part of your gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and the duodenum (the starting a portion of your small intestine). Your specialist will utilize a slim, flexible tube called an endoscope, which has its own particular lens and light source, and will see the pictures on a video screen to search for inflammation, bleeding ulcers or tumors.


  • Unexplained, persistent abdominal pain
  • Persistent nausea, vomiting or difficulty swallowing
  • Upper GI bleed ( may be treated by endoscopy)
  • Removal of  a foreign body
  • Abnormal or unclear findings on imaging
  • Biopsy (small tissue sample)
  • Follow up of previously noted polyps, tumors or ulcers


EGD with esophageal dilation– it is a procedure in which your specialist enlarges, or extends, the narrow portion of your esophagus to get a better look at the lining. Dilation is indicated when there is a blockage or stricture in the esophagus usually brought about by tumors, heartburn, ingestion of harmful agents, or the failure of food to move down the esophagus appropriately. So as to settle this, your specialist will pass a tapered dilating instrument through your mouth and guide it into the throat. This instrument will open the narrowing in the esophagus.

EGD with confocal microendscopy – it is a procedure in which a laser is utilized to picture the lining of the esophagus.

A colonoscopy lets your specialist examine at the lining of your large intestine (colon) for abnormalities by inserting a thin flexible tube, as thick as your finger, into your anus and gradually propelling it into the rectum and colon. This instrument, called a colonoscope, has its own lens and light source and it permits your specialist to view pictures on a video screen.


  • To check for polyps or colon cancer,
  • To check the cause of rectal bleeding,
  • To check for the cause of changes in bowel habits,
  • To check the cause of iron deficiency anemia
  • If there is a family history of colon cancer
  • As a follow-up test for patients with known colon cancer or previously detected polyps
  • To provide a more thorough examination after an abnormal x-ray
  • To check the cause of chronic unexplained abdominal or rectal pain.

During the Colonoscopy:

Patient will be administered fluids and a sedative through an IV that is inserted into his arm prior to the procedure. Then the patient will lie on your left side. His knees will be drawn up toward his chest – During the system the specialist may take a biopsy (little bit of tissue) or uproot any polyps that are found. Polyps are developments of tissue that range in size from a tip of a pen to a few inches. Most polyps are not cancerous. In any case, if permitted to develop for a longer period time, polyps may get to be dangerous.

After the Colonoscopy:

After the colonoscopy patient will be observed in the recovery area until the effects of the sedative medication wears off.  The most common complaint after colonoscopy is feeling bloated and having gas cramps.  Patient might also feel groggy from the sedative medications.

During the EGD Procedure:

The procedure normally takes between 10 – 30 minutes to finish. The endoscopy is performed while you lie on your left side. A plastic mouth guard is put between the teeth to anticipate harm to the teeth and endoscope. You will have an IV in your arm through which you will be given anesthesia (Propofol) to put you to sleep during the procedure. Air is tenderly gone through the endoscope to open the esophagus, stomach and digestive tract, permitting the endoscope to be gone through these ranges and to enhance the endoscopist’s ability to see a full and finish picture. The endoscope does not interfere with breathing.

After the Procedure:

After the endoscopy patient will be observed while the sedation wears off.  It is normal to feel tired temporarily after receiving the sedative medication.

Possible Complications:

Upper endoscopy is a secure procedure and complications are uncommon. Some of the possible inconveniences include:

  • Aspiration of food/fluid into the lungs: This is minimized by following the dietary restrictions prior to the procedure.
  • Reaction to the sedative medication
  • Bleeding from biopsies or polyp removal (Typically minimal and controlled).
  • The endoscope can cause a tear in the area being examined.

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR)

EMR is a minimally invasive, endoscopic removal of benign and early malignant lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)

ESD is an advanced endoscopic procedure used to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon.

The procedure consists of three steps:

  1. Injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the lesion
  2. Cutting the surrounding mucosa of the lesion
  3. Dissecting the submucosa beneath the lesion

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