"Colectomy is a surgical process to evacuate all or a portion of your colon. Your colon, which is also called your large intestine, is a long tube-like organ toward the end of your digestive system. Colectomy may be important to treat or prevent several conditions and diseases that influence your colon."
    Colon Surgery

There are different sorts of colectomy surgery:
• Total colectomy includes uprooting the whole colon.
• Partial colectomy includes uprooting a portion of the colon and may also be called subtotal colectomy.
• Hemicolectomy includes evacuating the right or left portion of the colon.
• Proctocolectomy includes evacuating both the colon and rectum.
Colectomy surgery more often requires different procedures to reattach the remaining parts of your digestive system and allow waste to leave your body.

Colectomy is utilized to treat and counteract diseases and conditions that influence the colon, for example,

Bleeding that can’t be controlled: Heavy Bleeding from the colon may oblige surgery to uproot the influenced segment of the colon.

Bowel obstruction: A blocked colon is critical that may require total or partial colectomy, contingent upon the circumstance.

Colon Cancer: Initially diagnosed early stage cancers may require just a little segment of the colon to be evacuated during colectomy. Cancer at a later stage may require a larger portion of the colon to be removed through surgery.

Crohn’s Disease: In the event that medicines aren’t offering you, some assistance with removing the infected portion of your colon may offer brief help from signs and symptoms. Colectomy might also be an alternative if precancerous changes are found during a test to examine at the colon (colonoscopy).

Ulcerative colitis: Your surgeon may prescribe total colectomy if medications aren’t controlling your signs and indications. Colectomy might also be a choice if precancerous changes are found during a colonoscopy.

Diverticulitis: Your surgeon may prescribe surgery to remove the influenced portion of the colon if your diverticulitis repeats or on the off chance that you encounter complications of diverticulitis.

Preventive surgery: In the event that you have a high danger of colon cancer because of the formation of various precancerous colon polyps, you may need to undergo total colectomy to prevent cancer later on. Colectomy may be a possibility for individuals with acquired hereditary conditions that increase the chances of colon cancer risks, for example, familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch disorder.

During the days leading the way to colon surgery, your surgeon may ask that you:

Quit taking certain medicines: Certain drugs can expand your danger of inconveniences and risk during surgery, so your specialist may ask that you quit taking those drugs before your surgery.

Fast before your surgery: Your specialist will give you particular guidelines. You may be requested that quit eating and drinking a few hours to a day prior to your technique.

Drink a solutions clears your bowel: Your surgeon may recommend a diuretic solution that you mix with water at home. You drink the solution more than a few hours, taking after the directions. The solution causes looseness of the bowels to empty your colon. Your surgeon might also prescribe enemas.

Take anti-biotics: At times, your specialist may recommend anti-biotics to stifle the bacteria found normally in your colon and to prevent other infections.

Preparing a patient for colectomy isn’t generally conceivable. In the event that any of patient requires an immediate colectomy because of bowel obstruction or bowel perforation, there may not be sufficient time to get prepare for the surgery.

• Depending on the complexity and type of the surgical procedure the patient will be admitted into the hospital for 4 to 8 days.
• During the stay the patient will be observed precisely to ensure that he is healing well and that colon has begun working again.
• A nasogastric (NG) tube might be going through patient nose and into the stomach, may be used to keep patient’s stomach empty for a few days.
• Patient may experience mild pain in the abdomen for few days.
• Surgeon may recommend some breathing exercises in order to clear any fluid in the lungs to prevent pneumonia.
• Patient will be allowed to take liquid diet for 2 to 8 weeks than steadily turned to soft diet.
• Patient may also experience fever, nausea, constipation or diarrhea which are common after colon resection.

Colon Surgery Procedure

In this surgery, the segment of the colon that is infected is removed, and the two closures of the colon are reattached. The objective here is to re-create a functioning colon. Sometimes, when the colon or rectum can’t work regularly, a new opening to the outside of the body (called a stoma) is made. The digestive tract is associated through the opening to an external bag where waste is gathered – this is known as a colostomy. At some times this colostomy can be turned reversed.

Open colectomy: Colon resection surgery has generally been performed utilizing conventional “open” procedures, which require extensive incisions.

Laparoscopic colectomy or Minimal intrusive colon surgery: With the progression of innovation and the advancement of new procedures, there are currently minimal obtrusive choices (with little cuts) that are pretty much effective. Your surgeon passes a minor camcorder through one incision and unique surgical instruments through alternate cuts. The surgeon watches a video screen in the surgical room as the instruments are utilized to free the colon from the encompassing tissue. The colon is then brought out through a little incision in your abdomen. This permits the specialist to work on the colon outside of your body. When repairs are made to the colon, the specialist reinserts the colon through the incision.

Minimal intrusive colon surgery usually lessens the pain and scarring from the technique and may speed the recovery process.